Christine Wildsoet

588 Minor Hall
(510) 643-4472
Lab Page
AFFILIATIONS Professor of Vision Science and Optometry
RESEARCH Our research encompasses eye growth regulation as it relates to the early refractive development and myopia (short-sightedness), which has now reached epidemic levels in many East Asian countries and is rising in prevalence world-wide. Myopia is thus significantly impacting global health care costs, as a direct consequence of its management with spectacles, contact lenses and refractive surgery, and there are significant costs associated with the treatment of myopia-related complications, such as retinal detachment, maculopathy, and glaucoma. High myopia is a leading cause of irreversible blindness and uncorrected refractive errors also remains a significant cause of correctible blindness. Although genetic factors are likely to play a role in myopia, the rapidly rising statistics for this disease (~96% in young adult Korean males in Seoul!), combined with emerging epidemiology data suggests a more complex picture, with strong environmental influences. The clearest evidence of the role of visual experience in eye growth regulation and myopia comes from studies in animals. In addition to directly studying myopes, our research makes use of young chicks and guinea pigs as animal models, as well as of cell culture models. Some of the many questions being targeted in our research are: What aspects of visual experience underlie myopia and how important is lighting? How do optical aberrations influence ocular growth? What are the retinal signal pathways and molecular signals involved? As the ultimate determinant of eye size, how is growth and remodeling of the sclera regulated? Are there novel optical, pharmacological, or bioengineered treatments for slowing myopia progression? In terms of human myopia, why are some individuals more susceptible than others? Are there visual environmental and/or visual behavioral explanations? Who are most likely to benefit from contact lens therapies for controlling myopia progression and is there an optimal age for intervention?This is an exciting and fast moving field of research! Our lab includes scientists at all levels – from undergraduate students to faculty researchers – drawing on a variety of backgrounds, ranging from clinical to basic science and bioengineering, with collaborations both within and outside UC Berkeley.

Selected Publications

Hammond DS. Wallman J, Wildsoet CF (2013). Dynamics of active emmetropization in young chicks – Influence of sign and magnitude of imposed defocus. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt Doi: 10.1111/opo.12056.

Aller T, Wildsoet CF (2013). Clinical perspective: Optical control of myopia has come of age – or has it? Optom Vis Sci 90(5): e135-7; doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31828b47cf.

Zhang Y, Liu Y, Ho C, Wildsoet CF (2013). Effects of imposed defocus of opposite sign on temporal gene expression patterns of BMP4 and BMP7 in chick RPE. Exp Eye Res 109:98-106.

Zhang Y, Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2012). Bidirectional, optical sign-dependent regulation of BMP2 gene expression in chick retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53: 6072-80.

Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2012). The effective add inherent in 2-zone negative lenses inhibits eye growth in myopic young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53: 5085-93.

Hammond DS, Wildsoet CF (2012). Compensation to positive as well as negative lenses can occur in chicks reared in bright UV lighting. Vision Res 67: 44-50.

Liu Y, Wildsoet CF (2011). The effect of two-zone concentric bifocal spectacle lenses on refractive error development and eye growth in young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52:1078-86.

Ostrin LA, Liu Y, Choh V, Wildsoet CF (2011). The role of the iris in chick accommodation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52: 4710-6.

Tian Y, Tarrant J, Wildsoet CF (2011). Optical and biometric characteristics of anisomyopia in human adults. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 31: 540-549.

Su J, Wall ST, Healy KE, Wildsoet CF (2010). Scleral reinforcement through host tissue integration with biomimetic enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer network. Tissue Eng Part A. 16: 905-16.

Tarrant J, Roorda A, Wildsoet CF (2010). Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. J Vis May 1; 10. Pil:10.5.4. doi: 10.1167/10.5.4.

Ganesan P, Wildsoet CF (2010). Pharmaceutical intervention for myopia control. Expert Review Ophthalmol 5: 759-87.

Su J, Iomdina E, Tarutta E, Ward B, Song J, Wildsoet CF (2009). Effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) hydrogel implants on myopic and normal chick sclera. Exp Eye Res. 88: 445-57.

Ai L, Li J, Guan H, Wildsoet CF (2009). Emmetropization and eye growth in young aphakic chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50: 295-304.

Choh V, Padmanabhan V, Wing S, Li J, Wildsoet CF (2008). Effect of colchicine on emmetropization in young chicks. Exp Eye Res 86: 260-70.

Tran N, Chiu S, Tian Y, Wildsoet CF (2008). The significance of retinal image contrast and spatial frequency composition for eye growth modulation in young chicks Vision Res, 48: 1655-62.

Padmanabhan V, Shih, J, Wildsoet CF (2008). Patching fellow eyes during subjective night does not prevent disruption to minus lens compensation in constant light-reared chicks. Vision Res 48: 1992-8.

Tarrant J, Severson H, Wildsoet CF (2008). Accommodation in emmetropic and myopic young adults wearing bifocal soft contact lenses. Ophthal Physiol Opt 28: 62-72.

Aller TA, Wildsoet CF (2007). Bifocal soft contact lenses as a possible myopia control treatment: A case report involving identical twins. Clin Exp Optom 91: 394-9.

Padmanabhan V, Shih J, Wildsoet CF (2007). Constant light rearing disrupts compensation to imposed- but not induced-hyperopia and facilitates compensation to imposed myopia in chicks. Vision Res 47: 1855-1868.

Tian Y, Wildsoet CF (2006). Diurnal fluctuations and developmental changes in ocular dimensions and optical aberrations in young chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 47: 4168-78.

Rymer J, Wildsoet CF (2005). The role of the retinal pigment epithelium in eye growth regulation and myopia: A review. Visual Neurosci 22: 251-261.

Wildsoet CF (2003). Neural pathways subserving negative lens-induced emmetropization in chicks – Insights from selective lesioning of the optic nerve and/or ciliary nerve. Curr Eye Res 27: 371-385.

Diether S, Wildsoet CF (2005). Stimulus requirements for the decoding of myopic and hyperopic defocus under single and competing defocus conditions in the chicken. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46: 2242-52.

Fitzgerald MEC, Wildsoet CF, Reiner A (2002). Temporal relationship of choroidal blood flow and thickness changes during recovery from form deprivation myopia in chicks. Exp Eye Res 74: 561-70.

Nickla DL, Wildsoet CF, Troilo D (2001). Endogenous rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness in chicks: implications for ocular growth regulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 42: 584-588.

Schmid KL, Abbott M, Humphries M, Pyne K, Wildsoet CF (2000). Timolol lowers intraocular pressure but does not inhibit the development of experimental myopia in chick. Exp Eye Res 70: 659-666.

Flitcroft DI, Troilo D, Wildsoet CF (2000). A new perspective in the pharmacological treatment of myopia. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia (F Thorn, D Troilo, J Gwiazda eds), Boston, pp 195-199.

Troilo D, Nickla DL, Wildsoet CF (2000). Choroidal thickness changes during altered eye growth and refractive state in a primate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41: 1249-1258.

Nickla DL, Wallman J, Wildsoet CF (1998). Visual influences on diurnal rhythms in ocular length and choroidal thickness in chick eyes. Exp Eye Res 66; 163-181

Schmid K, Wildsoet CF (1996). Breed- and gender-dependent differences in eye growth and form deprivation responses in chicks. J Comp Physiol A 178: 551-561.

Wildsoet CF, Wallman, J (1995). Choroidal and scleral mechanisms of compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks. Vision Res 35: 1175-1194.