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Deborah Orel-Bixler Deborah Orel-Bixler

Meredith W. Morgan University Eye Center
(510) 642-4221
Lab Page
AFFILIATIONS Professor of Clinical Optometry and Vision Science
Chief, Infant Toddler Clinic; Chief, SVACH Clinic, UC Berkeley School of Optometry

Assessment of visual abilities in infants, children and special-needs population; Visual evoked potentials; Vision screening; Photorefraction

VIP: Vision in Preschoolers Study

Director of the VIP clinical center at the UCB School of Optometry
This study is a multi-phased, multi-center, interdisciplinary, clinical study whose purpose is to evaluate the accuracy of screening tests used to identify preschool-aged children in need of further evaluation for vision disorders. The primary goal of the VIP Study is to determine whether there are tests or combinations of tests that can be used effectively to determine which preschoolers would benefit from a comprehensive eye examination to detect amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive errors, and associated risk factors.

The VIP study was profiled in an article titled “New guidelines urge better vision tests for preschoolers” in USA Today, June 10, 2004.

For more about the study, see VIP at the website of the National Eye Institute.

Selected Publications


Orel-Bixler DA and Norcia AM:  Differential growth of acuity for steady-state pattern reversal and transient pattern onset-offset VEPs.  Clin Vision Sci  2: 1-9, 1987.

Day SH, Orel-Bixler DA and Norcia AM:  Abnormal acuity development in infantile esotropia.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  29: 327-329,  1988.

Orel-Bixler DA.  Subjective and Visual Evoked Potential measures of acuity in normal and amblyopic adults and children.   Dissertation.  University of California at Berkeley, 1989

Orel-Bixler DA, Haegerstrom-Portnoy G and Hall AP: Visual assessment of the multiply handicapped.  Optometry Vis Sci   66:530-536, 1989.

Hall AJ, Orel-Bixler DA and Haegerstrom-Portnoy G:  Special visual assessment techniques for the multihandicapped. J. Vis. Impairm. Blindn,  Jan: 23, 1991.

Norcia AM, Garcia H, Humphrey R, Holmes A, Hamer RD and Orel-Bixler D: Anomalous motion VEPs in infants and in infantile esotropia. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 32: 436-39, 1991

Hamer RD, Norcia AM,  Orel-Bixler D, and Hoyt CS. Motion VEPs in late-onset esotropia. Clin Vision Sci 8: 55-62, 1993.

Orel-Bixler D, Haegerstrom-Portnoy G. Acuity development in autosomal recessive achromatopsia, in Vision Science and its Applications, 1994 Technical Digest Series, Vol 2 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1994), pp. 348-351.

Norcia AM, Hamer RD, Jampolsky A, Orel-Bixler D. Plasticity of motion processing mechanisms following surgery for infantile esotropia. Vision Res 35: 3279-96; 1995.

Orel-Bixler D. Vision Assessment for infants (birth to 2 years) with severe and multiple disabilities. In  Chen D (ed.) Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants whose multiple disabilities include both vision and hearing loss. Manual. Cal State Northridge, 1997, pp 83-116.

Chen D, Orel-Bixler DA. Vision Tests for Infants (Video and booklet) New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press, 1997.

Ciner EB, Schmidt PP, Orel-Bixler D, et al. Vision Screening of Preschool Children: Evaluating the Past, Looking Toward the Future. Optom & Vis Sci  75: 571-584; 1998.

Ciner EB, Dobson V, Schmidt PP, … Orel-Bixler D and Schultz J. A survey of vision screening policy of preschool children in the United States. Surv Ophthalmology 43:445-457; 1999.

Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group. Visual acuity results in school-aged children and adults: Lea symbols chart versus Bailey-Lovie chart. Optom Vis Sci 2003;80:650-4.

Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group. Threshold visual acuity testing of preschool children using the crowded  HOTV acuity test and the Lea symbols acuity test. J AAPOS 2003;7:396-399.

Schmidt PP for the Vision in Preschoolers Study Group. Testability of preschoolers on stereotests used to screen vision disorders. Optom Vis Sci. 2003:80:753-757.

Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group. Comparison of preschool vision screening tests as administered by licensed eyecare professionals in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) study.  Ophthalmology2004;111:637-650.

Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group. Preschool visual acuity screening with HOTV and Lea symbols: testability and between-test agreement. Optom Vis Sci 2004; 81:678-83.

Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study Group.  The electronic visual acuity tester: Testability in preschool children.  Optom Vis Sci2004;81:238-244.

Chapters in Books

Orel-Bixler D. Electrodiagnostics, Ultrasound, Neuroimaging and Photoscreening. In Moore B (ed). Eye Care of the Infant and Young Child.  Butterworth-Heinemann, Newton, MA; 1997, pp 89-122.

Orel-Bixler, D. Clinical Vision Assessments for Infants.  In Chen D. Essential Elements in Early Intervention: Visual Impairment and Multiple Disabilities. American Foundation for the Blind Press: New York, New York; 1999, pp. 107-156.

Orel-Bixler, D. Postnatal Human Visual Development. In Norton T, Corliss D, Bailey J (eds.) The Psychophysical Measurement of Visual Function. Butterworth-Heinemann. Woburn, MA; 2002, pp.289-308.

Orel-Bixler, D.  Vision Problems: Impairment to Blindness. In Rudolph CD, Rudolph AM (eds.) Rudolph’s Pediatrics 21st edition. McGraw Hill: New York, New York; 2002, pp. 489-498.