Jay M. Enoch

AFFILIATIONS Professor Emeritus of Vision Science and Optometry,
Dean Emeritus Optometry 1980-1992
RESEARCH Professor Enoch has been active in many areas of basic and applied (clinical) vision science. He was the first to argue that there had to be effects on vision resulting from anomalies of photo-receptor orientation, and he demonstrated this through measurements of the Stiles-Crawford Effect (directional sensitivity of the retina) in a number of disorders and diseases. He also first demonstrated that vertebrate photo-receptors are waveguides and defined their properties in several species including humans as well in living rabbit eyes. With Laties he further established that in vertebrate species (including humans) photo-receptors point towards the center of the eye pupil. He showed that small number of eyes have receptors pointing (anomalously)- approximately towards the center of their eyes. He argued that the orientation of photo-receptors was driven by a phototropic mechanism and demonstrated this by using a displaced pupil contact lens and assessing photo-receptor orientation. And he demonstrated that orientation of receptor orientation was locally controlled in the retina, and could recover even in the presence of some overlying tractional forces. Most recently, a trans-retinal tractional effect has been studied with S.S. Choi. It may be associated with strains accompanying eye-movements. This alters retinal receptor orientation plus other factors in mid to high myopic individuals and those with large eyes who are otherwise normal. And these strains can be transient or stable in this population. In cooperation with Profs. Maria Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan and Dr. Stacey Choi, he is studying the sources of these meaningful traction effects both experimentally and through use of special models.Separately, Enoch developed techniques for optimizing vision in eyes of patients with “front of the eye” low vision problems. The most noteworthy of these studies were his efforts to correct, with rather good success, vision in neonates and premature infants born with a variety of anterior eye congenital anomalies [cataract (various), aniridia, nystagmus, buphthalmos (an infantile form of glaucoma), persistent hyperplastic vitreous, correcting infant eyes with corneal transplants, etc.]. Through this work (conducted with pediatric ophthalmic surgeons), he sought to overcome early developmental forms of amblyopia, strabismus, and aniseikonia (unequal image sizes in the two eyes).He has been very active in development of perimetric methods for testing visual fields. He has addressed the effects of image blur upon perimetric measurements, developed a perimetry of neuropsychiatric disorders (apparently affected by anomalies of neurotransmitter substances/therapeutic interventions affecting the neurotransmitters), led development of perimetric and visual field standards, and defined “layer-by-layer quantitative perimetric techniques”. The latter techniques utilized our growing understanding of nerve transmission in the visual system, and allowed diagnostic localization of individual diseases to specific loci in the retina. This was demonstrated, in part, by studying (early stage) exacerbations and remissions of applicable disease processes.Currently, he is studying over-rides of retina and choroid on to the disc in some advanced myopias and using perimetric techniques he has revealed function on top of the optic nerve head in these patients (with Dong-Anh Le).He has sought to apply measurements of hyperacuity (Vernier acuity, doubling measurements, bisection tasks, Vernier fields) to clinical practice. Using Vernier acuity methods, Enoch is the first individual to have been successful in defining a technique for assessing visual capabilities through the densest ocular media opacities (leucomas of the corneas, mature cataracts, bleeds in the eyes). This is most valuable in helping surgeons assess post-surgical prognoses prior to ophthalmic surgery, and as a means of triage, particularly in the developing world where ophthalmic service resources remain incapable of meeting patient demands for eye care. Separately, he has been one of a small number of scientists working in this area who has demonstrated that certain Vernier acuity test designs are not affected by age.In the Public SectorAs a young man, Prof. Enoch was charged by the Subcommittee on Vision and Its Disorders (National Advisory Neurological Diseases and Blindness Council, NIH) to write what proved (later) to be the raison d’être and plan for the formation of the National Eye Institute. He has since served two terms on the National Advisory Eye Council, NIH.
He has led standards development in visual acuity, perimetry, spectacle lenses, contact lenses, sunglasses, and laser eye safety. He helped plan/execute the modern Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, and played a role in development of publications of that body. He served as Chairman of the first Committee on Research of the American Academy of Optometry, and as Chairman of the first Council on Research of the American Optometric Association. And he has been the effective liaison between the senior ophthalmologic and optometric professional organizations for decades.He led in the development of a quality school of optometry in Chennai (Madras), India. This was the first modern optometry school in that nation, and this has been achieved with cooperation of ophthalmology at the Medical and Vision Research Foundation in that city. The Elite School of Optometry has now been accepted as an external program of the Birla Institute for Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, and a graduate program in optometry has been developed. This school is a model for ca. 6 new schools of optometry in India (including Mumbai (Bombay), Puna, Calcutta, Hyderabad). And he has maintained a research laboratory at the Aravind Eye Hospital at Madurai, India.During twelve years as Dean at the School of Optometry at U.C. Berkeley, he sought to develop further the research and clinical programs of this distinguished institution. In particular, he sought to develop enhanced programs relating basic to clinical science in pediatric and neonatal care, low vision, geriatric and gerontological care, etc. He led in the development of a substantial new research structure for the School (a two-floor addition to the original Minor Hall), and with then Clinic Director Dr. Weylin Eng, he created a modern clinic in the University Student Health Service (Tang Center) on the Berkeley Campus.

Selected Publications


  1. Enoch, J.M., Fitzgerald, C.R. and Campos, E.C.: Quantitative Layer-by-Layer Perimetry: an extended analysis. Grune and Stratton, New York, 232 pp. 1980.
  2. Enoch, J.M. and Tobey, F.L. Jr.: Vertebrate Photoreceptor Optics. Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Volume 23. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 483 pp. 1981.
  3. Dawson, W. and Enoch, J.M. eds.: Foundations of Sensory Science. Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg, 577 pp. 1984.
  4. Lakshminarayanan, V., ed.: Basic and Clinical Applications of Vision Science, The Professor Jay M.Enoch Festschrift Volume,April 28-May 2,1996, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proc. Series, Volume 60, 338 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997.
  5. Handbook of Optics: Vol. III and IV, Optical Society of America, McGraw-Hill Publisher, New York, 2000. + Optical Society of America, CD-ROM, Prof. Eric Bass,Senior Editor, Prof. Enoch,Associate Editor. Prof. Enoch Contributed to Preface, co-authored a chapter on Biological Waveguides (with V. Lakshminarayanan, Vol. III, Chapter 9, pp 9-1 to 9-31. The edited and organized Vision section is 11 chapters in length (Vol. III, Chapters 8-18, pp. 8-0 to 18-15), 2000. He also helped edit volumes III, IV in toto.


  1. Enoch, J.M.: “Physiology: Vision.” Chapter in Modern Ophthalmology, Vol. 1, Basic Aspects, by A. Sorsby (ed.). Butterworths, London, pp. 202?289, 1963.
  2. Enoch, J.M.: “The retina as a fiber optics bundle.” Appendix B in Fiber Optics, Principles and Applications by H.S. Kapany. Academic Press, New York, pp. 372?396, 1967.
  3. Enoch, J.M.: “An attempt to restore binocular stereoscopic vision in selected unilateral aphakic patients.” Chapter 16 in Current Concepts in Ophthalmology by B. Becker and R. Burde. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, pp. 236?247, 1969.
  4. Enoch, J.M.: “The two-color threshold technique of Stiles and derived component color mechanisms.” Chapter in the Psychophysics Section of The Handbook of Sensory Physiology by L. Hurvich (ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, Vol. VII/4, pp. 537?567, 1972.
  5. Enoch, J.M.: “Vertebrate rod receptors are directionally sensitive.” Presented at and published in Symposium Report of International Workshop on Receptor Optics, Darmstadt, Germany, October 14?18, 1974. Chapter A.l in Photoreceptor Optics by A.W. Snyder and R. Menzel eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 17?37, 1975.
  6. Enoch, J.M. and Campos, E.C.: “New quantitative perimetric tests designed to evaluate receptive-field-like properties in diseases of the retina and the optic nerve.” In Electrophysiology and Psychophysics: Their Use in Ophthalmic Diagnosis by S. Sokol (ed.), International Ophthalmology Clinics. Little, Brown, and Co., Inc., Boston, 20(1):83?133, Spring 1980.
  7. Enoch, J.M., Williams, R.A., Essock E.A., and Fendick, M.G.: “Hyperacuity: A Promising Means of Evaluating Vision Through Cataract.” Chapter 3 in Progress in Retinal Research, Vol. 4., by Neville N. Osborne and Gerald J. Chader, eds. Pergamon Press, Oxford & NY, pp. 67?88, 1985.
  8. Campos, E. and Enoch, J.M.: “The Management of the Aphakic Neonate.” Chapter 17 in Pediatric Optometry, by A.A. Rosenbloom and M.W. Morgan eds. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 420-433, 1990.
  9. Enoch, J.M., and Lakshminarayanan, V. “Retinal Fibre Optics.” Chapter 13 in Vision and Visual Dysfunction, Vol. 1: Visual Optics and Instrumentation, by W.N. Charman (ed.). Macmillan Books, London, pp. 280-309, 1991.
  10. Enoch, J.M., Archaeological optics, Chapter 27 in Arthur H. Guenther (Ed.): International Trends in Applied Optics. International Commission on Optics, Vol. 5., Bellingham, WA., SPIE Press, Monograph: PM 119. 2002, pp. 629-666. (ISBN: 0-8194-4510-X.)

Papers (selections limited to the last few years – aspects of diversity are stressed)

  1. Enoch, J.M.: The enigma of early lens use: What is a lens? How do we know that an apparent lens was used as a lens? Technology and Culture, the Journal of the American Society for the History of Technology (published by the U. of Chicago Press) 39(2): 273-291, April, 1998.
  2. Enoch, J.M., Rynders, M., Lakshminarayanan, V., Vilar, Eva Yebra.- Pimentel, Giraldez Fernandez, M.J.,Grosvenor, T., Knowles, R., Srinivasan, R.: Two vision response functions which vary little with age. International Symposium on Lighting for Aging Vision and Health, W. Adrian, ed., Endorsed by the White House Conference on Aging, Orlando, FL, March 22-23, 1995. Lighting Research Institute, 120 Wall ST (17th floor), New York City, NY 10005-4001, March 1995, pp. 39-51.
  3. Hirose, H., Enoch, J.M., Tuan, K-M. Quantification of prism Induced metamorphopsia as a model for clinical retinal (and other) distortions. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 17(3): 239-247, 1997.
  4. Enoch, J.M., E. Yebra-Pimentel Vilar, M.J. Giraldez Fernandez: Development of low vision care and rehabilitation services in a developing world country: India as an example. (Invited Paper) Vision’96, V International Conference on Low Vision, Madrid, July 8-12, 1996. Volume 2, ONCE (Organización Nacional de Ciegos Españoles), Dirección General, Madrid, July 12, 1997, pp. 119-122.
  5. Enoch, J.M., Lakshminarayanan, V., Kono, M., Shih, P., and Strada, E.: Refractive astigmatism acts predominately as a source of high spatial frequency image distortion: The associated lineal distortions can be overcome using a low pass spatial filter! International Ophthalmology 22: 181-182, 1999.
  6. Fang, M.S-M., Enoch, J.M., Lakshminarayanan, V., Kim, E., Kono, M., Strada, E., and Srinivasan, R.: The three point vernier alignment or acuity test: An analysis of variance. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 20(3): 220-234, 2000.
  7. Kim, E., Enoch, J.M., Fang,M.,Kono,M.,Strada,E., V.Lakshminarayanan,V., and Srinivasan, R.:Performance on the ThreePoint Vernier Alignment (Acuity) Test” as a function of age: Measurements extended to ages 5-9 years. Optometry and Vision Science 77(9,September):492-495, 2000.
  8. Enoch, J:M.: Invited Keynote Lecture: “A Search for the Earliest Known Lenses.”Conference on Biomedicine and Culture in the Era of Modern Optics and Lasers, Herakleion, Crete, Greece, October 13, 1998. C. Fotokis, T.G. Papazoglou, C. Kalpouzos, Eds. (Prof. T. Papazoglou, Chairman), Sponsors: International Society on Optics Within Life Sciences (OWLS), the International Commission for Optics (ICO/CIO), and the Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH/IESL). Optics and Lasers in Biomedicine and Culture: Proceedings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 2000, pp. 3-14.
  9. Enoch, J.M., Lakshminarayanan, V: Variation in vernier acuity with age. Vision Research 42(9): 1211-1212, April, 2002.
  10. J.M. Enoch, J.S. Werner, G. Haegerstrom?Portnoy, V. Lakshminarayanan, M. Rynders. Forever Young: Visual Functions Not Affected or Minimally Affected By Aging. (Invited) Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 55A(#8), August, 1999: pp. B336-351.
  11. Kono, M., Enoch, J.M., Strada, E., Shih, P., Srinivasan, R., Lakshminarayanan, V, Susilasate, W., Graham, A.: Stiles-Crawford effect of the first kind: Assessment of photoreceptor alignments following dark patching. Vision Research 41(1, January):103-118,2001.
  12. Enoch, J.M.: (Invited paper) Remarkable lenses and eye-units in statues from the Egyptian Old Kingdom (ca. 4600 years ago): Properties, timeline, questions requiring resolution. August 4, 1999, International Congress of Optics-XVIII, August 2-6, Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, CA. paper published by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). Bellingham, Washington, SPIE Vol. #3749, Paper #102, 1999, 224-226, Prof. J. Goodman, Stanford, U., Organizer.
  13. Enoch, J.M.: Possible/probable early use of visual aids before spectacles: Lenses and mirrors. Invited paper. Session on “The History of Spectacles in Florence.” Renaissance Society of America, Proceedings, March 22-24, Florence, Italy. (Invited paper). Atti della Fond. G. Ronchi 56(1, Jan. – Feb.): 133-148, 2001.
  14. J.M. Enoch: (Invited) “Low vision care: Profound challenges for the next century.”In Vision Rehabilitation: Assessment, Intervention and Outcomes. Cynthia Stuen, A. Arditi, A Horowitz, et al, Eds. Selected papers from Vision 99′: International Conference on Low Vision, New York City, July 1999. Lisse, The Netherlands, Swets and Zeitlinger, b.v., Publishers. 2000, pp.15-18.
  15. Enoch, J.M.: The future of ophthalmoscopy: An example; Adaptive optics to provide micro-ophthalmoscopy. Part of a Mini-Symposium on “The History of the Ophthalmoscope”, J. Ravin, Organizer. Charlottesville, VA, June 24-25, 2000 Cogan Ophthalmic History Society Journal, 2000; 161-179.
  16. Enoch, J.M., Choi, S.S., Kono, M., Lakshminarayanan, V., Calvo, M.L. (Invited) Receptor alignments and visual fields in high and low myopia, In Perimetry Update 2000/01, M. Wall and R.P. Mills, eds., Proc. International Perimetric Society, September 6-9, 2000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Hague, The Netherlands, 2001 Kugler Publications, bv, pp. 373-387.
  17. Limeres, J., Calvo, ML, Lakshminarayanan, V, Enoch, JM: Stress sensor based on light scattering by an array of birefringent optical waveguides. Proc. International Commission on Optics, Florence, Italy, August, 2002, ICO XIX:: Optics for the Quality of Life. A. Consortini and G.C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4829, pp.881-882,, 2002 .
  18. A special edition of the Journal “Ver y Oir”(Vision and Hearing), ed. Jaume Pujol honoring J.M. Enoch on the occasion of his receipt of a D.Sc.(h.c.) at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia on October 18, 2002. Barcelona (Terrassa), Spain, October, 2002: Volume 19, #169, Pp. 645-711, 2002. Contents as follows: [A] Jaume Pujol Ramo: Jay Enoch recéin nombrado Doctor Honoris Causa por la UPC. (Jay Enoch, who has recently been awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa by UPC.) Cover photograph and Editorial on p. 645. (In Spanish) (Photograph taken in 1978.) [B] Jay M. Enoch: A rather complete review: “The Stiles-Crawford Effects, also known as ‘The Directional Sensitivity of the Retina.'”pp. 651-664. [C] Maria Luisa Calvo y Josefa Limeres (ML Calvo is a former Post-doctoral Fellow): ?Puede la fisica interpretar el comportamiento de los receptores de la retina? (Can physics interpret the behavior of retinal receptors?) pp. 665-675. [D]Eva Yebra-Pimentel Vilar y Ma. Jesus Giraldez Fernandez (former Post-doctoral Fellows): Hiperagudeza: Tipos y aplicaciones clínicas. (Hyperacuity: types and clinical applications.)
    pp. 676-681. [E] Francisco Miguel Martínez Verdú : Navegando por Internet: Entorno científico de Jay Enoch y sus publicaciones. (Navigating the Internet: The scientific environment of Jay Enoch and his publications.) pp. 686-890. [F] Jaume Pujol Ramo: Entrevista con Jay Enoch, nombrado Doctor Honoris Causa por la Uninversitat Polytèchnica de Catalunya. (Interview with Jay Enoch, recently awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa by the Ploytechnic University of Catalunya.) pp. 691-699.
  19. Enoch, J.M:: Use of concave mirrors as visual corrections and magnifying devices preceded spectacle corrections. Proc. Cogan Ophthalmic History Society Meeeting, St. Louis, MO, April 2003. (In press).