Martin S. Banks

506 Minor Hall
(510) 642-9341
Lab Page
AFFILIATIONS Professor of Optometry and Vision Science
Affiliate Professor of Psychology and Bioengineering

Visual space perception; virtual environments

My research involves three topics:

  1. The use of motion and stereoscopic information to determine the spatial layout of the visible environment and one’s motion through that environment.
  2. The combination of information from more than one sense modality (e.g., vision and touch).
  3. The construction and evaluation of devices for creating useful virtual environments (e.g., vision, vestibular, and touch).

In all cases, we are particularly interested in determining how efficiently human observers utilize the available stimulus information while performing perceptual tasks and also in applying the results to emerging technologies such as virtual reality.

Selected Publications

Vangorp, P., Richardt, C., Cooper, E.A., Banks, M.S., & Drettakis, G. (2013). Perception of perspective distortions in image-based rendering. ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH), 32, 58:1-12. [PDF]

Held, R.T., Cooper, E.A., & Banks, M.S. (2012). Blur and disparity are complementary cues to depth. Current Biology, 22, 1-6. [PDF]

Cooper, E.A., Piazza, E.A., & Banks, M.S. (2012). The perceptual basis of common photographic practice. Journal of Vision, 12(5):8, 1-14.

Banks, M.S., Read, J.C.A, Allison, R.S., & Watt, S.J. (2012). Stereoscopy and the human visual system. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 121, 24-43. [PDF]

Shibata, T., Kim, J., Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2011). Visual discomfort with stereo displays: effects of viewing distance and direction of vergence-accommodation conflict. Proceedings of the SPIE: Stereoscopic Displays & Applications , 7863, 1-9. [PDF]

Shibata, T., Kim, J., Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2011). The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays. Journal of Vision, 11(8):11, 1-29. [PDF]

Cooper, E.A., Burge, J. & Banks, M.S. (2011). The vertical horopter is not adaptable, but it may be adaptive. Journal of Vision, 11(3):20, 1-19. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.M., Karasev, V.I. & Banks, M.S. (2011). Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth. Journal of the SID, 19/3, 255-281. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.M. & Banks, M.S. (2010). Focus information is used to interpret binocular images. Journal of Vision, 10(5):13, 1–17. [PDF]

O’Shea, J.P., Agrawala, M., & Banks, M.S. (2010). The influence of shape cues on the perception of lighting direction. Journal of Vision, 10(12):21, 1-20. [PDF]

MacNeilage, P.R., Banks, M.S., DeAngelis, G.C., & Angelaki, D.E. (2010). Vestibular heading discrimination and sensitivity to linear acceleration in head and world coordinates. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 9084-9094. [PDF]

Burge, J., Girshick, A.R., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Visual–haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 7214-7721. [PDF]

Burge, J., Fowlkes, C.C., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Natural-scene statistics predict how the figure–ground cue of convexity affects human depth perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 7269-7280. [PDF]

Held, R.T., Cooper, E., O’Brien, J., & Banks, M.S. (2010). Using blur to affect perceived distance and size. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 29, 2, 19.  [PDF]

Love, G.D., Hoffman, D.M., Hands, P.J.W., Gao, J., Kirby, A.K., & Banks, M.S. (2009). High-speed switchable lens enables the development of  a volumetric stereoscopic display. Optics Express, 17, 15716-15725. [PDF]

Girshick, A.R. & Banks, M.S. (2009). Probabilistic combination of slant information: weighted averaging and robustness as optimal percepts. Journal of Vision, 9(9):8, 1-20. [PDF]

Burr, D., Banks, M.S., & Morrone, C.M. (2009). Auditory dominance over vision in the perception of interval duration. Experimental Brain Research, published on-line 7/14/09. [PDF]

Burr, D., Silva, O., Cicchini, G.M., Banks, M.S., & Morrone, M.C. (2009). Temporal mechanisms of multimodal binding. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276, 1761-1769. [PDF]

Hoffman, D.L., Hands, P.J.W., Kirby, A.K., Love, G.D., & Banks, M.S. (2009). Stereo display with time-multiplexed focal adjustment. Proceedings of the SPIE: Stereoscopic Displays & Applications, 7237, 1-12. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Held, R.T., & Girshick, A.R. (2009). Perception of 3-D layout in stereo displays.  Information Display, 25(1), 12-16. [PDF]

Vlaskamp, B, Filippini, H.R., & Banks, M.S. (2009). Image-size differences worsen stereopsis independent of eye position. Journal of Vision, 9(2):17, 1-13. [PDF]

Filippini, H.R. & Banks, M.S. (2009). Limits of stereopsis explained by local cross-correlation. Journal of Vision, 9(1):8, 1-18. [PDF]

Banks, M.S., Akeley, K., Hoffman, D.M., & Girshick, A.R. (2008). Consequences of incorrect focus cues in stereo displays. Information Display, 24(7), 10-14. [PDF]

O’Shea, J.P., Banks, M.S., & Agrawala, M. (2008). The assumed light direction for perceiving shape from shading. ACM Transactions on Graphics, APGV08, 135-142. [PDF]

Held, R.T. & Banks, M.S. (2008). Misperceptions in stereoscopic displays: A Vision Science perspective. ACM Transactions on Graphics, APGV08, 23-31. [PDF]

Hoffman, D. M., Girshick, A. R., Akeley, K., & Banks, M. S. (2008). Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue. Journal of Vision, 8(3):33, 1-30. [PDF]

Hernandez, T.D., Levitan, C.A., Banks, M.S., & Schor, C.M. (2008). How does saccadic adaptation affect visual perception? Journal of Vision, 8(8):3, 1-16. [PDF]

Burge, J., Ernst, M. O., & Banks, M. S. (2008). The statistical determinants of adaptation rate in human reaching. Journal of Vision, 8(4):20, 1-19. [PDF]

Schreiber, K. M., Hillis, J. M., Filippini, H. R., Schor, C. M., & Banks, M. S. (2008). The surface of the empirical horopter. Journal of Vision, 8(3):7, 1-20. [PDF]